Mindfulness and meditation are increasingly used in clinical practice to treat conditions such as depression, anxiety and addiction. However, the fundamental mechanisms underlying these practices are not yet well-known and theoretical frameworks are sparse. Two important explanatory mechanisms that will be considered in this workshop are sticky thinking (cognitive fusion) and the sense of self. Experts on these topics from a wide range of disciplines including neuroscience, psychology, cognitive science, mathematics and philosophy will collaborate to develop more integrated theories of how those topics are involved in meditation practice. In this workshop, we hope to synthesize their ideas towards common theoretical frameworks, and to define a robust research agenda for future research in this field. Anticipated outcomes include a position paper and a plan for a multi-lab grant proposal to advance work in these areas.