Several neurocognitive processes have been implicated in addiction, including motivated attention, reward processing, emotion regulation, stress reactivity, delay discounting, and inhibitory control. These processes appear to depend on functionally integrated cortico-limbic-striatal circuits whose dysfunction supports the acquisition, maintenance, and reinstatement of addictive behaviors. Novel interventions that target the neurocognitive processes underlying addictive behavior may hold promise as effective treatments for persons with substance-use disorders. While an emerging body of evidence suggests a potential therapeutic effect of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for people with substance-use disorders, this effect may be mediated through multiple mechanisms. This panel presentation includes data from several studies using behavioral neurocognitive measures to investigate the effects of mindfulness training and dispositional mindfulness on neurocognitive processes among people with substance-use disorders. A theoretical model describing how mindfulness can modulate these neurocognitive processes among people with substance-use disorders will be discussed.