Though a breadth of existing theory and some early empirical evidence point to the need and potential benefits of compassion treatment for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there has yet to be a rigorous test of the efficacy of structured compassion training for this population. The proposed study aims to fill numerous gaps in the existing literature by studying the effects of Compassion Cultivation Training (CCT) on military veterans with a primary diagnosis of PTSD who are engaged in a 90-day residential rehabilitation treatment program. Specifically, we aim to randomize 30 individuals to nine weeks of CCT, with another 30 randomized to nine weeks of a wellness control condition. Participants will be assessed prior to and immediately following treatment/control. The primary aim of the present study is to determine the effect of CCT on PTSD symptoms and related psychopathology, compassion and mindfulness, as well as intra- and interpersonal functioning. Findings from the proposed study will directly inform larger examinations of CCT for veterans and non-veterans with PTSD as well as the potential implementation of CCT as a treatment adjunct within the VA Health Care System.