Dalai Lama to discuss Botho/Ubuntu during a three-day public conference with African leaders in Botswana

 

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA — His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama will visit Botswana in August to participate as an honorary guest at a public conference hosted by the Mind & Life Institute. The Government of Botswana has opened its doors to the Dalai Lama’s participation in this conference, taking place at the new Indoor Sports Centre on the campus of the University of Botswana in Gaborone, 17–19 August.

The conference, “Botho/Ubuntu: A Dialogue on Spirituality, Science and Humanity with the Dalai Lama,” brings African humanitarian and spiritual leaders, scholars and healers into conversation with His Holiness the Dalai Lama and international neuroscientists about the African worldview of Botho/Ubuntu.

Defining humanity through our connections with one another, Botho/Ubuntu is expressed as: “I am because you are,” a view that is reflected also in the Dalai Lama’s teachings. Examining African values and healing practices in light of new scientific research on social connection and trauma, the Dialogue in Botswana explores the potential of Botho/Ubuntu as a framework for healing the legacy and trauma of wars and colonialism, and advancing social justice and women’s equality.

The conference is open to the general public with discounted tickets available to students and Batswana youth (ages 15 – 35). Tickets are on sale now until Friday, 7 July, at www.BotswanaDialogue.org.  Please note that all ticket holders will receive a security clearance prior to the conference, so tickets must be purchased by 7 July.

In addition to the two-and-a-half-day Mind & Life Dialogue with scholars, spiritual leaders and scientists on the topic of Botho/Ubuntu, the Dalai Lama will also speak from his heart to the public during a separate address that culminates his three days in Botswana. The public address on Saturday 19 August will include a musical performance by special guest, Vusi Mahlasela.

The Dalai Lama is the spiritual leader of the Tibetan people and is an internationally revered proponent of secular ethics, inter-religious harmony and human happiness. He is co-author with Archbishop Desmond Tutu of the best-selling “Book of Joy.” He is also the recipient of the 1989 Nobel Peace Prize for his message of nonviolence, reconciliation and reverence for all living beings.

Thupten Jinpa, Chair of the Mind & Life Institute’s Board of Directors and the principal English interpreter to the Dalai Lama since 1985, described the upcoming conference in Gaborone as “an historic opportunity for the people of Africa to benefit from the unique wisdom of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, as he encounters profound issues of modern African society through the lens of Botho/Ubuntu. Guided by presentations and conversations with an international panel of experts, the conference will bravely explore African issues, from its sacred pre-colonial history to the importance of gender equality, healthy communities and peaceful coexistence.”

Mind & Life Dialogues with His Holiness the Dalai Lama began in 1987 as intimate conversations with leading scientists and scholars to develop an understanding of the mind in relation to human behavior. These conversations have since grown to include large public and private events addressing critical issues of modern life at the intersection of scientific and contemplative understanding.

The Mind & Life Institute is a nonprofit organization founded in 1991, providing grant funding for research projects and think tanks, and hosting academic conferences and Dialogues with His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama. Its mission is to alleviate suffering and promote flourishing by advancing the interdisciplinary field of contemplative sciences, deepening understanding of the mind, and promoting evidence-based applications of meditative practices in real-world contexts.

 

Contact:

Donald J. Crotteau
Director of Communications
Mind & Life Institute
botswanacommunications@mindandlife.org

Daphne Kadiwa
Chief of Protocol
Republic of Botswana
dkadiwa@gov.bw

“Qwantify” Research Study by Mind & Life and Northeastern University Seeks Thousands of Public Participants

 

App-based study asks: What do you want — and will it make you happy?

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA, January 10, 2017 — The Mind & Life Institute, in partnership with Northeastern University, announced today the launch of Qwantify, a scientific research study seeking thousands of public participants to download and use a free app to answer the question, “What do you want, right now?”

Everyone desires something. You might want a new smartphone, a slice of pizza, or a hug from a friend. Desire, or “wanting,” is a basic human motivation that leads us to do all kinds of things, whether it’s as minor as grabbing a cup of coffee or as major as making a career change. Desire can lead to great satisfaction in life, or it can spiral out of control leading to situations like addiction. Dr. Wendy Hasenkamp, science director at the Mind & Life Institute, said, “Many of us have ideas about what we think will make us happy. But often, people’s beliefs about themselves don’t match up with their patterns of daily experience. And when it comes to the things we want, which motivates our behavior, this can have major impacts on well-being.” Hasenkamp is one of the investigators for the Qwantify project, along with Dr. Christy Wilson-Mendenhall, Dr. Paul Condon and Dr. Lisa Feldman Barrett from Northeastern University.

The new mobile app, developed by London-based Psychological Technologies, is simple to use and is available for free to anyone who wants to participate in the study. There is no obligation and all data collected is completely anonymous. Study data is collected in real time when participants answer a few simple questions each day, such as “Do you want anything right now?” “What emotions are you feeling?” or “Are you with other people?” As data is gathered, participants can view their own personal statistics on charts and graphs, offering a way to learn about their own wants and desires. At the the same time, information is aggregated from all participants into massive data sets for analysis by the research team. It generally takes about two weeks to complete the study, but users can continue to use the app as long as they like.

“Everyone who uses the Qwantify app is helping the research team to better understand the dynamics of wanting; but the app also provides helpful insights to each person,” said Condon. “Over the course of the study, participants learn about the patterns of their own cravings and desires. Even without the data analysis, many people find that just tuning into what they are experiencing in the moment provides valuable personal insights, and increases awareness of wanting and its effects.”

Through the Qwantify app, researchers are able to study the relationships between wanting and happiness on a scale not previously available in the lab alone. “Wanting is deeply personal, and can vary a great deal from person to person. Science does not know enough about this variation. As researchers, we realize that laboratory studies take place in a very specific context. An equally important part of building a science of the mind is engaging in research that sheds light on the intricacies of what daily life is like for people across the country and the world,” said Wilson-Mendenhall. “There’s a huge opportunity for discovery here.” Thanks to this technology, the data can now include the real-world experiences and desires of thousands of people, making the outcomes more accurate and relevant across diverse populations.

Questions that the Qwantify study will explore include:

  • What kinds of desires do people experience most frequently?
  • How is wanting related to things like stress and loneliness, or self-esteem and happiness?
  • Do different people experience wanting differently?
  • How is wanting affected by your social situation?
  • What emotional states are people trying to achieve through wanting?

The Northeastern University researchers on the Qwantify project are based in the lab of psychologist and neuroscientist Dr. Lisa Feldman Barrett, whose theory of emotion is based on a deeper understanding of the mind, body and brain. “You are the architect of your own experience,” said Barrett.  “You are not at the mercy of your emotions. The more you know about your wants and desires, the better equipped you are to design the kind of life you want to lead.” Barrett’s new book “How Emotions Are Made: The Secret Life of the Brain” (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, March 7, 2017) explores her theory and latest research in the new science of emotion, mind, and brain, and shares intriguing practical applications for health, the legal system, our relationships with one another, and what it means to be human. Her research overturns the widely-held belief that emotions are hard-wired reactions within the brain, instead showing that emotion is constructed in the moment by core systems interacting across the whole brain, aided by a lifetime of learning.

The real-world, moment-to-moment nature of Qwantify’s app-based sampling will help scientists to understand this complex landscape when it comes to human desire — and its relationship to well-being. The study is now live, and the Qwantify app is freely available for iPhone or Android through the App Store or Google Play. More information can be found at http://qwantify.org.


About the Mind & Life Institute:

The Mind & Life Institute is a nonprofit organization founded in 1991 to establish the field of Contemplative Sciences. The institute provides a home for scholars and scientists from around the world who incorporate contemplative practices into their various fields of research. Mind & Life supports and unifies this community by funding research projects and think tanks, and by hosting academic conferences and dialogues with contemplative leaders like the Dalai Lama. Our mission is to alleviate suffering and promote flourishing by integrating scientific research with contemplative practices such as mindfulness, compassion and other meditative traditions. For more information, please visit https://www.mindandlife.org.

 

About Dr. Feldman Barrett and Northeastern University’s Interdisciplinary Affective Science Laboratory:

Lisa Feldman Barrett, PhD, is a University Distinguished Professor of Psychology at Northeastern University, with appointments at Harvard Medical school and Massachusetts General Hospital in Psychiatry and Radiology. She received an NIH Director’s Pioneer Award for her research on emotion in the brain. Her research focuses on the nature of emotion, and she has crafted the theory of constructed emotion as a means of understanding how brain and body create a mind. For a detailed list of current publications, please visit: http://www.affective-science.org

 

About Psychological Technologies:

PSYT creates real-time data-collection apps designed to capture academic research metrics using the experience sampling method (ESM) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA). For more information, please visit http://www.psyt.co.uk/

 

Download Press Release as a PDF »

Early Bird Registration ends Friday, July 1st for ISCS

Early Bird Registration ends this Friday, July 1st for the 2016 International Symposium for Contemplative Studies (ISCS).

Join a diverse group of scientists, scholars, mindfulness practitioners and other contemplatives, artists, and others from an estimated 40 countries to learn about the latest research, practices and initiatives in the field of contemplative studies this November 10-13 in beautiful San Diego, California.

Register now and save »

Interested in a further discount?

Scholarships are available to current students in order to reduce the costs of ISCS registration to only $50. Mind and Life is committed to increasing participation by members of traditionally underrepresented groups, and we encourage those who self-identify as a member of a traditionally underrepresented group to apply.   

Apply now »

Volunteer for the 2016 ISCS.

We welcome volunteers at ISCS! If you are interested in receiving a substantial discount in exchange for one full day of service at the event, please contact us at: volunteer@mindandlife.org

Upcoming Conference on Compassionate Leadership, featuring Thupten Jinpa

AMHERST, Mass. – Thupten Jinpa, official translator for the Dalai Lama, will be the keynote speaker at the Conference for Compassionate Leadership on Saturday, April 16 from 10:00 AM to 3:00 PM in the Integrative Learning Center Auditorium at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

Jinpa was trained as a monk at the Shartse College of Ganden Monastic University, South India, where he received the Geshe Lharam degree. Jinpa also holds a bachelor of arts in philosophy and a PhD in religious studies, both from Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. He has been the principal English translator to the Dalai Lama since 1985 and has translated and edited numerous books by the Dalai Lama. He is the main author of Compassion Cultivation Training (CCT), an eight-week formal program developed at the Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education at Stanford University. Jinpa’s most recent book is A Fearless Heart: How the Courage to be Compassionate Can Transform Our Lives.

The conference is presented by UMass Amherst student Tenzin Thargay, the Five College Buddhist studies program and UMatter at UMass.

In light of national tensions between the African-American community and police and anti-Muslim rhetoric and terrorist-inspired xenophobia in Europe, the conference will focus on teaching students to have compassion in leadership roles. Thargay says, “I truly believe that introducing compassion into the equation of clash can reduce conflict. Hopefully by planting the seeds of compassion leadership in the minds of the students, upon graduation and entrance into their fields of expertise, these seeds will blossom to spread more compassion.”

The conference will include a keynote address by Jinpa along with a panel discussion with faculty from the Five College consortium, including Sonya Atalay (UMass) Maria Heim (Amherst College), Constance Kassor (Smith College), Jill Lewis (Hampshire College), and Linda Tropp (UMass). In the afternoon, participants have the opportunity to have a special Tibetan lunch with Jinpa and attend his workshop that will include a presentation, guided meditation and a discussion, based on his CCT program.

Space for the lunch and workshop is limited to the first 45 people to register. RSVP to SACL@umass.edu by Wednesday, April 13.

Contact: Tenzin Thargay, (617) 735-5538, tthargay@umass.edu

Download PDF poster here

Mind and Life Relocation and Positions

 

 MIND AND LIFE RELOCATING TO CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA

The Mind & Life Institute is pleased to announce the upcoming move of its headquarters to Charlottesville, Virginia. Effective in May 2016, the MLI office will relocate from Hadley, Massachusetts to Charlottesville. Susan Bauer-Wu, Mind and Life’s new president, sees “springtime as an ideal time to begin a new chapter in Mind and Life’s distinguished history in convening and catalyzing interdisciplinary and cross-institutional conversations and science that address profound issues that matter in the world.” With the relocation, Mind and Life will have greater proximity to Washington, DC and to a number of academic colleagues deeply engaged in this work. We are also excited to be adding new members to our team in Charlottesville.

MIND AND LIFE RECRUITING NEW STAFF FOR VIRGINIA OFFICE

Mind and Life is recruiting and accepting applications for several staff positions to join the new office in Charlottesville, Virginia, starting spring 2016. We are seeking talented individuals who are inspired by Mind and Life’s mission and embody the values of self-awareness and compassion that are foundational to our work.

Charlottesville, Virginia is a bucolic university town located in central Virginia, about two hours from Washington, DC. It’s a vibrant community rich in arts, culture, world class restaurants and vineyards, and surrounded by beautiful rolling mountains. Charlottesville was named the “most happy” city in the U.S. in 2014.

We have currently filled all of our open positions.
Check our careers webpage for updates as positions are added and filled.

A Simple Way to Break a Bad Habit

Mind and Life Fellow Jud Brewer talks about the relationship between mindfulness and addiction in his recent TED Talk, “A Simple Way to Break a Bad Habit.”

 

Mind and Life Partners with National Geographic on Two Upcoming Events

March 3, 2015 – Fellow and MLI board member, Richie Davidson at National Geographic headquarters

MLI Fellow and board member Richie Davidson will share his insights from Mind and Life XXX at the National Geographic Headquarters in Washington D.C. as part of National Geographic Live!, an event to be held March 3, 2016, at 7:30.

Click here to buy tickets to the lecture in Washington D.C.

March 9, 2015 – The World We Make: Well-being in 2030
Along with His Holiness the Dalai Lama, the Center for Healthy Minds at the University of Wisconsin, Madison is gathering world leaders in science, healthcare, and media to explore how we can cultivate well-being in ourselves, our communities, and the world.

Click here to tune into the livestream of the event with His Holiness the Dalai Lama, MLI Fellows, and special guests.

2015 Francisco J. Varela Grants for Contemplative Research

Neuroscientist, philosopher, and Mind and Life co-founder Francisco Varela (1946-2001) believed that contemplative training offered modern science novel methods for investigating the depth of human experience. In his vision, contemplative training such as meditation not only provided a new domain for scientific study, but also offered resources for advancing scientific models of consciousness, emotion, and cognitive processing.

Named in his honor, The Francisco J. Varela Grants for Contemplative Research are grants of up to $15,000 awarded annually to research scientists who have attended the Mind and Life Summer Research Institute. These grants fund scientific and scholarly examinations of contemplative techniques, with the ultimate goal that findings will provide greater insight into the mechanisms of contemplative practice and its application for reducing human suffering.

It is our pleasure to announce the 2015 Varela Grant Recipients: Read More

Mind and Life XXX: Perception, Concepts, and Self

 
Over the last several decades, the Mind & Life Institute has organized regular dialogues between His Holiness the Dalai Lama and leading scientists and philosophers. The goal of these meetings has been to creatively but critically investigate themes of mutual interest—such as the nature of reality and consciousness, ecology and our global environment, the neural underpinnings of meditation and brain plasticity, and bringing compassion into economics—in the expectation that such cross-cultural dialogue can lead to enrichment of our collective knowledge and even to new insights and lines of research.

For our 30th dialogue, we shared this unique exchange with the larger Tibetan Buddhist monastic community, gathering at Sera Monastery in Bylakuppe, India from December 14-17, 2015. The location of this meeting was chosen to synergize with recent efforts to bring science education into the traditional monastic curriculum, and we were joined by and audience of over 5,000 monastic students.

Mind and Life XXX was co-organized by the Dalai Lama Trust India, and addressed the topics of Perception, Concepts, and Self from Western scientific and Buddhist perspectives. The conference brought together some of the world’s foremost scientists and philosophers with the Dalai Lama and other senior Tibetan scholars for a rich exchange about these topics, which have been central not only in modern cognitive science, but also in classical Indian and Tibetan thought (see insets below).

Perception is the principal mechanism through which we make contact with ourselves and the world around us. Our perceptual mechanisms, however, are neither transparent nor infallible. While perception leads us to believe that we are somehow experiencing the world directly “as it is,” it is actually a complicated set of psychophysiological processes that constructs our experience. Thus, if we are to understand the nature of our knowledge, and the world we experience, we must develop a sound understanding of the nature of perception itself.
We experience the world around us not as a bare sensory array, but as objects with properties, categorized through concepts, labeled through our language. That means that to understand how we engage with the people and objects around us, we must understand the origin, structures and impact of our concepts. To understand how concepts are acquired and formed, much can be learned through understanding the relations of concepts to language, and the mechanisms through which language is acquired, represented and deployed in thought. Inasmuch as our interactions with those around us are determined in part by the ways in which we categorize and label them, this study of cognitive activity has profound moral implications.
The idea that there is no self is central to Buddhist philosophy, but Buddhists also recognize the fact that most of us take the existence of the self—both our own and the selves of others—for granted. In the Buddhist view, this is the core confusion that generates human suffering; the goal of Buddhist practice is to eradicate this view and to transform our psychology to end the reflexive construction of this illusion. At the same time, Buddhists also recognize that while there may be no self, there has to be a conventionally real person, and there is a good deal of debate about the nature of that conventional person and its relationship to more fundamental phenomena. Both Western philosophy and cognitive science are also deeply concerned with the metaphysics of the self, how we construct and represent our identities, whether those constructed identities correspond to any physical entities or processes, and how the self emerges in relation to others. Because of the deep connections between our grasping at this sense of self and our everyday behavior, understanding the nature of self is a matter of great moral import.

Over the week, scientific presentations addressed visual perception (Pawan Sinha) and embodied neuroscience (Cathy Kerr), the psychology of language and thought (Lera Boroditsky), and development of the concept of self in early infancy (Vasu Reddy). Philosophical presentations discussed accounts of perception and its role in knowledge (Thupten Jinpa), the nature of conceptual thought and the role of concepts in our experience (John Dunne), and the varying conceptions of self as well as debates concerning the reality of the self (Professor Geshe Yeshe Thabkhe; Jay Garfield). In thinking about how to best extend this knowledge into the world, we considered possibilities for self-transcendent attributes such as altruism and compassion (Matthieu Ricard) and what modern science knows about cultivating these states (Richard Davidson)._OHH2242 resize

The event featured additional presentations discussing the challenges and opportunities of the exchange of ideas between Buddhism and Western culture (Geshes Lhakdor, Lobsang Tenzin Negi, and Dadul; Yangsi Rinpoche), and overviews from three leading monastic science education programs: Science Meets Dharma, Science for Monks, and the Emory-Tibet Science Initiative (Werner Nater; Bryce Johnson; Carol Worthman). To provide the monastic audience with basic information on neuroscience and Western approaches to studying the mind, we also offered an introductory lecture in this domain (Wendy Hasenkamp).

Finally, we were very pleased to be able to host our first dialogue among more junior members within Western scientific and Buddhist scholarly traditions. To this end, on the final evening of the event, neuroscientists Christy Wilson-Mendenhall and Dave Vago joined with monastic scholars Khenpo Sonam Tsweang, Thabkhe Lo, and Tenzin Lhadron to discuss self and self-concepts from these two perspectives. We are hopeful that this will be the first of many such conversations among younger members of our communities, and that the ongoing dialogue will thereby continue long into the future.
DSC_3587 resized

The Dalai Lama contributed his viewpoints during many of these presentations, and closed the meeting with the following words:

MLXXX-MR312 resizedIn the beginning these dialogues took place at my wish. But when I saw what a benefit it could be for the monks, I thought we should try to hold meetings in the monastic institutions where thousands are studying. I saw an opportunity for the extension of knowledge. 

We face many problems, many of them man-made. It is our responsibility to solve them. We need to use our human intelligence to do this. … We are talking about coming to see things differently. No one seeks out suffering; everyone just wants to be happy. But out of short-sightedness we hatch plans that bring us trouble. We need to find human solutions. We need to consider the needs of coming generations. … Our real responsibility is to find a new approach, a more holistic view so the generation of the 21st century will have the opportunity to make this a happier, more peaceful world.

Videos of all presentations with the Dalai Lama can be found here, and the full program brochure is here.

We extend our deep gratitude to the Dalai Lama Trust India, the Hershey Family Foundation, and the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives for their support of this event, and to all the participants for their important contributions. It is our wish that these conversations will continue to advance both the project of scientific education in the monastic universities, as well as the developing dialogue between the Tibetan and Western academic communities in the years to come.

Mind & Life Institute Names New President

Susan Bauer-Wu, End-of-life Care Specialist, Healthcare Advocate, and Leader in Contemplative Studies in Higher Education Joins Organization Dedicated to Building New Academic Field

(Hadley, MA) November 3, 2015 – The Mind and Life Board of Directors confirmed the selection of Susan Bauer-Wu, PhD, RN, FAAN as the new president of the Mind & Life Institute (MLI). Bauer-Wu, will formally take up the appointment December 1, 2015, succeeding interim president and board member Carolyn Jacobs, PhD, and former president Arthur Zajonc, PhD, who served the Institute since 2011.

Co-founded by His Holiness the Dalai Lama, together with contemplative neuroscientist Francisco Varela and entrepreneur Adam Engle, MLI was founded nearly 30 years ago to bridge the fields of science with the insights of humanities and contemplative traditions.
Bauer-Wu will lead the organization known for convening top scientists and scholars, along with contemplative and humanities scholars, as a way to more fully study, research and understand the science of the mind. MLI has successfully helped to develop and build the field of contemplative studies through funding more than 130 young scholars researching this area.

“I am deeply honored to serve as the next president of this remarkable organization,” said Bauer-Wu. “Mind and Life is a catalyst for profound good in the world through its unique orientation of bridging the sciences, humanities and wisdom traditions with practical issues that matter. I look forward to partnering with the wider community on this important work together,” she added.

In welcoming the new president, the Mind and Life board chair Thupten Jinpa added, “My colleagues on the board and I are delighted to welcome Professor Susan Bauer-Wu as the new president of the Mind and Life Institute. With her outstanding credentials as a research scientist, her foundation in nursing and her leadership role in the Compassionate Care Initiative, Professor Bauer-Wu brings a rare combination of intellect, heart, and social awareness that is in tune with the vision of the Mind and Life Institute. With her appointment, Mind and Life has found its new leader from within its own fellowship community, which is a source of particular joy. We look forward with enthusiasm to working with Professor Bauer-Wu to further the vision and work of the Mind and Life Institute and its community of scientists, scholars, and contemplatives.”

Professor Bauer-Wu was chosen to lead the Hadley-based organization as she has dedicated her own career to the same mission of MLI, alleviating suffering and promoting well-being. With a foundation as a registered nurse caring for individuals with cancer and mental illness as well as those facing the end of life, she went on to a productive academic career studying and applying contemplative practices in health care and higher education. She comes to MLI most recently from the University of Virginia (UVa) where she was the director of the Compassionate Care Initiative and the Tussi and John Kluge Professor in Contemplative End-of-Life Care at the UVa School of Nursing and the UVa Department of Religious Studies. Bauer-Wu completed doctoral studies in psychoneuroimmunology, followed by post-doctoral training in psycho-oncology and behavioral medicine.

Her first full-time faculty appointment was at the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMass) where she collaborated with the UMass Center for Mindfulness, integrating her personal meditation practice and professional work as a researcher and teacher of mindfulness-based interventions. She then went on to Harvard Medical School and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute where she led a robust research center that focused on enhancing cancer patients’ quality of life and quality of clinical care. Later, Bauer-Wu was at Emory University as an associate professor of nursing and a Georgia Cancer Coalition Distinguished Scholar. There she co-created the Emory Collaborative for Contemplative Studies and contributed to the teaching of Tibetan monastics in the Emory-Tibet Science Initiative.

Bauer-Wu has a long history connected to MLI as a Fellow, a Varela Grant reviewer, a contributor to the Summer Research Institute, a presenter at both International Symposia of Contemplative Studies, and a member of the Research Advisory Council. In addition to her many scholarly publications, Bauer-Wu is the author of a book for the lay public, Leaves Falling Gently: Living Fully with Serious & Life-Limiting Illness through Mindfulness, Compassion & Connectedness.

About the Mind & Life Institute
The Mind & Life Institute is committed to building a scientific understanding of the mind and its potential as a way to help reduce suffering and to promote human flourishing. The institute aims to foster an interdisciplinary dialogue between contemporary science, philosophy, humanities, and contemplative traditions and promotes an integration of first-person inquiry through meditation and other contemplative practices into traditional scientific methodology. This approach is designed to facilitate the investigation of an individual’s subjective experience in a rigorous, scientific way. For more information, visit mindandlife.org.